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域名合同是服务还是产权?

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发表于 2017-2-5 01:29:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Are Domain Names Contract of Services or Property Rights?
域名合同是服务还是产权?
Feb 02, 2017 12:34 PM PST
By Duksh Kumar Koonjoobeeharry
翻译:谋神


There are several perspectives from which one can give various answers to the question of 'what are domain names?'. Originally the domain name system started and continues to be a human-friendly way of addressing to a set of machines or specific machine connected to the Internet. Hence, from the technical perspective, a domain name is simply an address consisting of a combination of alphanumeric and symbols to communicate with a machine which also happens to be hosting certain services in form of data and information on it.
关于什么是域名,不同人从不同视觉可以给出各种各种的答案。最初启动域名系统只是提供一种人性化寻址或让机器连接到互联网的方案。因此,从技术的角度来看,一个域名仅仅是一个由字母数字和符号的组合成的地址,通过这个地址与承载某些数据和信息服务的机器连接。

Indirectly that machine or its hosted services can also act as a gateway to a network of other services and machines. The above perspective can be considered as the parent perspective from which comes the business perspective and legal perspective. As a starting point, the domain name takes birth via the domain registrar and the registrant after going through the registration process which is done online in a lapse of minutes consisting of:
    Entering desired domain name to be checked for availability from database;
    Checking availability from the database;
    If domain name is available, select service plan consisting of terms and conditions along with duration of plan and service fee;
    Pay online;
    Configure the Domain Name Server (DNS) to associate the domain name.
机器或其承载的服务也可以间接地作为连接到网络上其他服务和机器的网关。上述关于域名是什么的观点可以被看作是域名的原始定义,从这个定义出发,才有了域名的商业和法律定义。作为一个起点,域名的出生通过在域名注册商平台以下程序达成,这个过程只需几分钟在网上完成:
输入所需域名在域名数据库检查是否可注册;
在数据库检查域名是否可用;
如果域名可以注册,勾选服务计划,这些计划由条款和条件组成,包括服务期限和服务费;
在线支付;
给域名配置域名服务器(DNS)。

The above is all it takes for anyone to get a domain name from a domain name registrar at any time and day. The issue of whether the domain name becomes a services contract, more than property rights or vice versa, comes next.
以上是任何人在任何时候从域名注册处获得域名所需要做的所有事情。关于域名是否是服务合同,而不仅仅是产权问题,请看下文。

Trademarks and the owner
商标及其所有人


A trademark is always attached to an entity representing the owner and a quality attached to a product or service. On its own, the trademark has no value if separated from its goodwill. Every country and its different jurisdictions have their own laws regulating trademarks. Can a trademark be used as a domain name? Yes. Can a domain name become a trademark? Not really, as the domain name is not owned by anyone, it is only licensed to be used as an address by the registrar to the registrant for a limited time only.
商标总是依附于代表所有者的实体和附在产品或服务上的质量。商标本身如果与商誉分离,就没有价值。每个国家和不同的司法管辖区都有自己的法律来规范商标。商标可以用作域名吗?对.域名可以成为商标吗?不是真的,因为域名是不属于任何人,它只是授权作为地址登记注册人只在有限的时间。

Bundle of Rights
权利束

Breaking down some of the various bundles of rights enjoyed by stakeholders related to trademark and domain names. Several of these rights can be transferred between different parties through sales or trade.
打破与商标和域名相关的利益相关者享有的各种权利。这些权利可以通过销售或交易在不同的政党之间转移。

1) Regulatory Body (ICANN):

    Right to license registrant
    Right to amend the UDRP
    Right to amend the ICANN Bylaws
    Right to publish root zone server
1)管理机构(ICANN):

许可人的权利

修改规则的权利

修改章程对ICANN

发布根区服务器的权限

2) Domain Name Registrars:

    Right to change service fee
    Right to amend service contract
    Right to impose UDRP on registrant
2)域名注册:

更改服务费的权利

服务合同修改权

在征收权登记规则

3) Domain Name Registrant:

    Right to register an available domain name
    Right to not publish the domain name (no website attached to that domain name)
    Right to configure the domain name to point to the desired machine
    Right to control access to service provided via that domain name
    Right to use the domain name for advertising
    Right to sell the domain name
3)域名注册人:

注册可用域名的权利

不发布域名的权利(没有附在域名上的网站)

配置域名以指向所需机器的权限

通过该域名控制访问服务的权限

使用域名进行广告宣传的权利

域名出售权

4) Trademark Owner:

    Right to register an available domain name
    Right to not publish the domain name (no website attached to that domain name)
    Right to configure the domain name to point to the desired machine
    Right to control access to service provided via that domain name
    Right to use the domain name for advertising
    Right to sell the domain name
4)商标所有人:

注册可用域名的权利

不发布域名的权利(没有附在域名上的网站)

配置域名以指向所需机器的权限

通过该域名控制访问服务的权限

使用域名进行广告宣传的权利

域名出售权

5) Public:

    Right to access the service provided via the domain name
    Right to provide reviews and comments about service/website provided via the domain name
    Right to fill report of spamming against a domain name
5)公众:

访问域名所提供服务的权利

通过域名提供服务/网站的评论和评论的权利

填补对域名权垃圾邮件报告

6) Internet Intermediaries (ISPs/ Search engines):

    Right to allow access to the website
    Right to block access to the concerned domain name
6)互联网中介商(ISP /搜索引擎):

允许访问网站的权利

阻止访问相关域名的权利

Does the 'bundle of rights' makes the domain names service contract rights or property rights?
“捆绑权”是否使域名服务合同权利或财产权利?

The following cases (in chronological orders) will provide different angles through which the question of whether the 'bundle of rights' makes the domain names service contract rights or property rights, can be answered:
下面的案例(按时间顺序)将提供不同角度的问题,即“权利捆绑”是否使域名服务合同的权利或财产权利,可以回答:
1) Dorer v Arel, 60 F. Supp. 2d. 558 (E.D. Va.1999).
1)多勒V阿雷,60 F. Supp. 558(如va.1999)二维。
    Rose Marie DORER and Forms, Inc., who were the plaintiffs filed a trademark infringement action in the jurisdiction of Virginia state against Brian AREL the defendant for using the domain name 'writeword.com'. The court decided to ban the defendant from using the domain name and made the defendant pay $5000 to the plaintiffs. But the plaintiffs also wanted to have their share from the profit which might have been derived from the domain name use, but the court denied that request as there was no lien between the domain name and the defendant's property. In this case, the domain name was a contract of service from NSI.
玛丽和罗斯dorer型公司,是世界卫生组织的《野战plaintiffs A trademark侵权诉讼的管辖权弗吉尼亚州立大学的Brian对服装的defendant为使用的域名的writeword.com”。法院决定禁止使用的defendant虔诚的域名和defendant付费方式的两个plaintiffs 5000美元。但plaintiffs也想让他们从这股的利润可能会被源于《域名使用,但denied,请求法院为有没有留置权之间的域名和defendant的性质。在这情况下,域名是一个虔诚的NSI承包服务。

2) Umbro International v 3263581 Canada, 48 Va. Cir. 139 (1999).

    This case which at a point turned out to be a case of cybersquatting during which the court had to deal with a situation of whether a contractual right to use an Internet domain name (in this case 'umbro.com') could be garnished from NSI (the registrar) according to Umbro International. But the court decided that as it was not a liability but rather a contract of services provided by NSI as registrar to the registrant there should be no garnishment.
2)3263581茵宝国际加拿大48 V,VA。CIR。139(1999)。

这个案例,这一点打开了一个域名抢注的情况,在这两个问题,法院的仇恨与一个局面,不管合同权利使用一个互联网域名(在这个案例的umbro.com)-可以从garnished NSI(《注册)根据茵宝国际。但法院的决定,这是不是一个为责任而一但承包服务的提供,NSI为注册的注册号garnishment应该有。

3) Gary Kremen, et al. v. Stephen Michael Cohen, et al. No. 01-15899 (9th Cir., July 25, 2003).

    This case was one where a forgery took place and the plaintiff was ordered to be compensated by the defendant who went away without following the order after which the plaintiffs decided to go after the NSI (the registrar) for compensation. But as the registrar was found to be a party having no gain and interest in the domain name, the registrar was saved by its contract of services.
3)加里的乳液,等。迈克尔.科恩(Stephen,等。01号15899(第九cir.,7月25日,2003)。

本案例是一个在广场and the forgery把plaintiff是有序的compensated的我走了,没有人defendant阶以下的其中plaintiffs后决定走在NSI(《注册)的补偿。但我发现AA的注册一个党有没有收益和利息的域名的注册,是救市ITS承包服务。

4) Barcelona.com Incorporated v. Excelentisimo Ayuntamiento de Barcelona (The City Council of Barcelona, Spain) 330 F.3d 617, Civ. No. 02-1396 (4th Cir., June 2, 2003).

    This case had an international angle with conflicting laws in a specific jurisdiction. 'barcelona.com' was ordered to be transferred to 'Excelentisimo Ayuntamiento de Barcelona' on the basis of cybersquatting but later on, the decision was reversed on the basis of Spanish law being applied in a US jurisdiction where the court did not find the domain name to be infringing the claimed trademark.
4)barcelona.com公司诉excelentisimo市政厅(在巴塞罗那市议会(巴塞罗那,西班牙)330 f.3d 617,文明。02号(4 cir. 1396,六月2,2003)。

本案例的仇恨conflicting角与国际法在一个特定的权限。barcelona.com”是两个两个有序转移的excelentisimo巴塞罗那市政厅的基础上的,但之后对域名抢注行为的决策,倒是在西班牙法律的基础上的应用,在美国有管辖权的法院在没有找到这两个域名infringing《claimed trademark。

5) Audi AG and Volkswagen of America Inc. v. Bob D'Amato 469 F.3d 534, No. 05-2359 (6th Cir., November 27, 2006).

    This case was purely one of trademark infringement in which the defendant's, without proper permission, had used the Audi trademark and logo on a website having a trademarks infringing domain name.
5),奥迪和大众汽车美国公司诉鲍勃达马托469 f.3d 534号05 2359(6 cir.,11月27日,2006)。

本案例是一个purely trademark其中defendant侵权的,没有正确的权限,用仇恨的trademark奥迪和标志在一个网站有一个infringing商标域名。

6) Tucows.Com Co. v. Lojas Renner S.A., 2011 ONCA 548 (CanLII).

To sum up, I'd like to use 2 of the following quotes which say it all.

    "A number of courts have — not surprisingly - concluded that domain names are service contract rights."

    "As someone mentioned in a forum discussion about this, the door swings both ways. Whether domain names should be considered property or not, and whether it's good or bad, depends on what side you're on." Dave Zan, Dec 23, 2005 on circleid.com
6)tucows .com公司诉RennerMultiplan瑞纳公司2011年(548 canlii onca)。

和两个IP,想用2以下quotes说这一切。

“a number of法院有键槽surprisingly -这是concluded域名服务合同的权利。”

“有人在上述论坛讨论关于这门swings的两个主要方面。域名是否应该被财产是否或不,和它的好或问-什么,取决于你的手上。“戴夫赞,2005年12月23日,在circleid.com

Bibliography
参考书目
1) Dorer v Arel, 60 F. Supp. 2d. 558 (E.D. Va.1999). Available at <http://www.leagle.com/xmlResult.aspx?xmldoc=199961860FSupp2d558_1557.xml&docbase=CSLWAR2-1986-2006#FR_9>
1)dorer 60 V t,F. Supp。2D 558(例如va.1999)。可用<http:/ / / xmlresult.aspx www.leagle.com吗?xmldoc = 199961860fsupp2d558 _ 1557.xml & docbase = cslwar2 1986年至2006年9 # FR _ >
2) Umbro International v 3263581 Canada, 48 Va. Cir. 139 (1999). Available at <http://www.courts.state.va.us/opinions/opnscvwp/1991168.pdf>
2)3263581茵宝国际加拿大48 V,VA。CIR。139(1999)。可用<http:/ / /意见/ www.courts.state.va.us opnscvwp / 1991168.pdf >
3) Gary Kremen, et al. v. Stephen Michael Cohen, et al. No. 01-15899 (9th Cir., July 25, 2003). Available at <http://www.internetlibrary.com/pdf/kremen-cohen-9th-cir.pdf>
3)加里的乳液,等。迈克尔.科恩(Stephen,等。01号15899(第九cir.,7月25日,2003)。可用<http:/ / / / www.internetlibrary.com PDF kremen-cohen-9th-cir.pdf >

4) Barcelona.com Incorporated v. Excelentisimo Ayuntamiento de Barcelona (The City Council of Barcelona, Spain) 330 F.3d 617, Civ. No. 02-1396 (4th Cir., June 2, 2003). Available at <http://www.internetlibrary.com/pdf/Barcelona.com-Excelentisimo-Ayuntamiento-4th-Cir.pdf>
4)barcelona.com公司诉excelentisimo市政厅(在巴塞罗那市议会(巴塞罗那,西班牙)330 f.3d 617,文明。02号(4 cir. 1396,六月2,2003)。可用<http:/ / / / www.internetlibrary.com PDF barcelona.com-excelentisimo-ayuntamiento-4th-cir.pdf >

5) Audi AG and Volkswagen of America Inc. v. Bob D'Amato 469 F.3d 534, No. 05-2359 (6th Cir., November 27, 2006). Available at <http://www.internetlibrary.com/pdf/Audi%20D'Amato.pdf>
5),奥迪和大众汽车美国公司诉鲍勃达马托469 f.3d 534号05 2359(6 cir.,11月27日,2006)。可用<http:/ / / / PDF www.internetlibrary.com奥迪百分之20的amato.pdf >

6) Tucows.Com Co. v. Lojas Renner S.A., 2011 ONCA 548 (CanLII). Available at <http://www.canlii.org/en/on/onca/doc/2011/2011onca548/2011onca548.pdf> last accessed on 11/02/2013
6)tucows .com公司诉RennerMultiplan瑞纳公司2011年(548 canlii onca)。可用<http:/ / / /在www.canlii.org onca /医生/ / / / 2011onca548.pdf 2011 2011onca548 >在线负荷accessed 11从2013年7)评论戴夫赞’是一个域名的性质?2003年12月23日。可用<http:/ / / /邮政www.circleid.com冰_ A _ _ name域_性质。

7) Comment from Dave Zan on 'Is a Domain Name Property?', 23 December 2003. Available at <http://www.circleid.com/posts/is_a_domain_name_property/>
7)从戴夫赞在线评论是域名的物业?23日,2003年。可用的<http:/ / /是一个www.circleid.com _ _域在_ _物业名称:
By Duksh Kumar Koonjoobeeharry, Team Lead, Open Source Geek, Internet Legal Researcher
duksh koonjoobeeharry(Kumar,团队领导,开放源代码,网络法律研究


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